Formation des préparateurs : développement et mise en œuvre d’un programme d’habilitation au préparatoire
(2) Univ. Grenoble-Alpes / CNRS / TIMC-IMAG UMR 5525 / ThEMAS.
Nonsterile pharmaceutical preparations are at the historical core of pharmacy practices. Yet, this declining activity is now back in demand in medical wards like geriatrics and pediatrics, at the University Hospital of Grenoble Alps (CHUGA). Institutional policies require the periodic turnover of pharmacy technicians in every pharmacy sectors. However multi-tasking dilutes pharmacy technicians’ knowledge and skills resulting in an increase of non-compliances in nonsterile compounding units. Consequently, pharmacy technicians’ training is critical for the quality of compounded drugs. This study aimed to design and implement an accreditation program for pharmacy technicians at the CHUGA.
The program was built on the basis of the instructional design model : ADDIE. Its 5 stages are : analysis (context, objectives, risks, opportunities, constraints and needs), design (defining the learning objectives, targeted competencies and appropriate instructional media), development (producing the resources), implementation (publishing and scheduling courses) and evaluation of training (participant’s feedback). In the analysis part, we tried to identify the different instructional tools of accreditation used in french hospital and community pharmacies and reviewed the non-compliances in our unit.
Contextual analysis showed that, among nonsterile compounding units (hospital and community pharmacies), the main instructional tools used were : companionship (96%, n=24) and internal procedures (84%, n=21). Accreditation tools were primarily : the tutor (76%, n=19) and interviews conducted by pharmacists (72%, n=18). Finally, a review of non-compliances showed that 67% (n= 76) were the consequences of a poor handling process. When designing the program, the competency framework was drafted and main components of the program were established : 11 online modules were written, associated with 4 simulation scenarios and a companionship program. Each of the online modules can contain an online course, a video and/or a quiz, allowing the learner to self-assess, and a satisfaction questionnaire. Thus, 22 online courses, 13 quizzes, 4 video clips and 4 simulation scenarios were created. When implementing the program, 6 participants were recruited. Apprentices’ performances were adequate according to the curriculum specifications, however due to internal mobility only 4 participants completed the program. All 4 agents were successfully accredited. Among accredited agents satisfaction rate was 97% (n=3).
To our knowledge, no similar project, targeting nonsterile compounding units, to this one exists. In the future, this study will contribute to lower levels of risks by standardizing training. This program will be tested on larger scale in hospital and community pharmacies to evaluate all its benefits and homogenize practices.