Training and accreditation of pharmacy technicians in the reconstitution of anticancer drugs:

Pauline Nardone1, Claire Bertaux1, Priscilla Feistl2, Marie Darrodes3, Muriel Arsène1, Simon Rodier1 1 : PUI du CH d’Alençon, 61, rue de Fresnay, 61000 ALENCON, France
2 : PUI du Centre François Baclesse, 3, avenue du Général Harris, 14 000 CAEN, France
3 : PUI de l’Hôpital Foch, 40, rue Worth, 92150 SURESNES, France

Background
The training / accreditation (T/A) of pharmacy technicians (PTs) in antineoplastic preparation’s is part of an approach to improving the care quality. Despite many recommendations, tools and modalities of pharmacy technician’s T/A are not very detailed. The aim was to carry out an inventory of various educational tools and models used in French healthcare establishments (HE) for T/A of PTs in centralized antineoplastic preparations units.

Methods
A literature review was carried out from January 2014 to January 2020, in order to identify publications concerning the pharmacy technician’s T/A centralized antineoplastic preparation units, via the MEDLINE, COCHRANE, GOOGLE SCHOLAR databases, thesis/dissertations databases and Frenchspeaking pharmaceutical conferences.

Results
37 publications were included and concerned 29 HFs. The most widely used theoretical tools were lectures (63%) and records (33%). Watching videos was described by five HE. Three used playful tools: board games, playing cards, quiz. Observation and mentoring have been poorly described. "Test” preparations for unit qualifications were carried out for training and post-training evaluation in ten HE. Simulation was described by 15 ES and seemed to satisfy a majority of learners. Procedural simulation, described in 12 ES, was often based on learning from error. The “full scale” simulation, described twice, allowed working on non-technical skills, such as urgent / critical situations. One HE implemented numerical simulation. Out of 28 publications describing the post-training evaluation of PTs, two HE empowered via the realization of "test" preparations, one via simulation and one via the validation of a post-training questionnaire with observation. A team released an accreditation certificate. Only five teams mentioned long-term rehabilitation of the PTs, either annually or after a prolonged stoppage of activity. A satisfaction evaluation of the training was carried out in 60% of cases.

Discussion / conclusion

Many tools are deployed for T/A in HE in France, but are rarely described in a global model. Furtherrmore, accreditation and rehabilitation are hardly described. However, they seem essential to taking up a position and inseparable from continuing training, making it possible to maintain knowledge / skills and to recover from potential drifts. To refine the ideal T/A model and move towards a standardized program, it would be interesting to combine this study with a national survey on T/A models and current needs for centralized preparation units’ staff.

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